The term vinegar comes from the Latin “vinum acre”, which means “sour wine”. Thus, vinegar is a liquid substance with a sour taste; it is obtained through the acetic fermentation of alcohol (through bacteria called “Mycoderma aceti”). On the other hand, it contains between 3 and 5% acetic acid in water.
Specifically, vinegar is a liquid solution (in some cases a little thicker) of acetic acid obtained by a fermentation process . In addition, salts and extracts of other materials are added to this solution.
As for its origin, the first vinegar that was made and popularized was wine vinegar. Its history is actually very old, and the sacred books already mentioned vinegar (and wine).
To obtain it, vinegar goes through two fermentation processes: the first is alcoholic fermentation (the action of ferments transforms sugar into alcohol); the second is the acetic process, which involves a large group of bacteria (specifically, aceto-bacteria). These bacteria combine oxygen and alcohol to produce acetic acid .
The types of vinegar
There are different types of vinegar, according to its ingredients and its characteristics. The vinegar that is most consumed (or best known) is white distilled vinegar . The classification that we are going to expose of the different types of vinegar is based on two parameters: the methods of elaboration of the same and the material or ingredients used for its elaboration.
- Wine vinegar
Wine vinegar is obtained by fermentation (exclusively). It is the most used vinegar in the gastronomy sector, especially in Europe (especially Italy and France).
In turn, wine vinegar can be of different types of wine:
1.1. Red wine vinegar
This type of vinegar is especially indicated to accompany red meat, as it enhances its flavor .
1.2. White wine vinegar
This second type of vinegar is a good option to cook some sauces , such as hollandaise sauce or mayonnaise.
1.3. Other types of wine vinegar
Other types of vinegar made with wine, and perhaps less known, although very original, are: vinegar with fine herbs, fruits (for example strawberries, raspberries …) or wine vinegar with garlic.
- Cider vinegar or apple
Cider or apple cider vinegar is a milder vinegar ; Thus, its flavor is preferred by many. It is made either through the pulp of the apple or its juice.
How is its elaboration? The fruit sugar first becomes alcohol and then acetic acid. Another option is to obtain this vinegar through cider or fermented apple. Cider or apple cider vinegar is ideal to add to salads, white meats and fish.
- Distilled white vinegar
Distilled white vinegar, as we already anticipated, is one of the most used and consumed types of vinegar. It is obtained through distillation, just before the alcohol has become acetic acid .
The strong taste of distilled white vinegar is explained because its manufacturing process makes its acetic acid content very high. Thus, this type of vinegar is obtained from corn, molasses or sugarcane. On the other hand, it is widely used to make packaged sauces, for example.
- Sherry vinegar
The next type of vinegar is Jerez vinegar. Specifically, it is produced by submerged fermentation with wines of Denomination of Origin of Jerez . In addition, they make it in 500 liter oak boats. The system they use is called “Criaderas Soleras”.
This type of vinegar is perfect for salads; In addition, it is a good option to dress almost any dish of traditional Mediterranean cuisine. It is also part of the ingredients of gazpacho.
In turn, Jerez vinegar can be of two types:
4.1. Sherry Vinegar “Reserve”
The first type is the sherry vinegar “Reserve”; Their aging period in boots must be a minimum of 2 years.
4.2. Sherry vinegar “Solera”
The second type is the sherry vinegar “Solera”; It is a type of vinegar that must have gone through an aging period of at least 6 months in boots.
- Modena Vinegar
The next type of vinegar is Modena, with a slightly thicker consistency (not as liquid as the previous ones), and a dark brown color. Modena vinegar is especially used to add flavor to salads (as a dressing). Its origin is Italian, and it is made with fresh grape must.
As for its elaboration, the must is boiled to concentrate the flavor and sugar content, and subsequently allowed to age between 6 and 12 years.
On the other hand, this type of vinegar is also used to make vinaigrettes or other types of sauces, such as yogurt sauce. To combine with food / dishes, Modena vinegar is ideal for fatty fish (such as tuna or salmon).
We must take into account, however, that the Modena vinegars that they usually sell in the supermarket are not original, but have added significant amounts of sugar.
- Rice Vinegar
Rice vinegar has a fairly mild flavor, although it has an acidic touch . It is colored between white and pale gold. It is extracted from the fermentation of rice.
This type of vinegar is especially used in Japanese cuisine, to season dishes such as sushi.
Properties and uses of vinegar
Now that we have seen the 6 types of vinegar that exist (or its 6 large groups), let’s know some of the properties of vinegar (and some of its uses).
- Natural preservative
Vinegar has the property of naturally preserving food; that is why it is used in the food industry. In addition, it reduces the pH of food, preventing bacteria from growing.
- Ideal for marinating
Vinegar helps soften meats, as it unfolds its fibers and proteins. That is why it can be a good product to marinate.
- Antibacterial agent
On the other hand, vinegar can also be used as an antibacterial agent; This is because it helps eliminate some bacteria that could harm our health . For example, it prevents fungal growth, neutralizes unpleasant odors and disinfects.
- Highlight the taste
Another property of vinegar is that it highlights the taste of many dishes and / or foods (for example salads, meats, sauces …). It is a good option because it brings a touch of acidity to the dishes.
Before we can successfully explain what Apple Cider Vinegar is, it is necessary to know what vinegar is
What Is Vinegar?
The dictionary describes vinegar as “sour wine” or “sour liquid produced by acetic fermentation of dilute alcoholic solutions and used as a condiment or preservative.” The vinegar is obtained by two different biological processes, both as a result of the action of harmless microbes (yeast and acetobacter) which convert sugars (carbohydrates) into acetic acid. Many of our favorite foods require some kind of bacteria in their production–from cheese and yogurt to wine, pickles and chocolate. The first process is known as alcoholic fermentation which happens as yeasts turn natural sugars to alcohol under controlled circumstances. In the second process, a group of bacteria (referred to as “Acetobacter”) transforms the portion of alcohol to acid. It is the acetic or acidic fermentation that produces the vinegar. Proper bacterial cultures are important; pacing is important; fermentation should be closely monitored.
Although acetic acid is the primary component of vinegar other than water, acetic acid is not vinegar. Vinegar contains most vitamins and other compounds not present in acetic acid, such as riboflavin, vitamin B-1 and mineral salts from the starting content that give vinegar its distinct flavor.
Vinegar can be extracted from any fruit or from any sugar-containing material.
What Is Apple Cider Vinegar
Apple vinegar is vinegar produced from fermented apple juice. It is made by crushing the apples, then by pressing the juice. Bacteria and yeast are added to the solution to begin the alcoholic fermentation process, which turns the sugars into alcohol. In the second stage of fermentation, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (Acetobacter species). Acetic acid and malic acid come together to make vinegar taste sour.
Apple vinegar is 94 per cent liquid, with 1 per cent sugar and no fat or protein (table). The reference amount of 100 grams (ml) is 22 calories, with negligible micronutrient content. Both components of apples may be used for the fermentation of homemade apple cider vinegar. Cutting apples into small cubes increases the surface area of the apples, helping to ferment. The apple fragments are immersed in a mixture of water and sugar (or honey) to provide fermentation sugars. Once the pieces have been submerged, a breathable cover is placed for approximately 2 weeks, then strained and stored for another 4 weeks until the vinegar has been made. Apples are taken to the storage line, where they are roasted, squeezed and the juice is extracted. The product is most often placed in a submerged tank where the first step of fermentation occurs by which oxygen is supplied. To achieve alcoholic fermentation via bacterial strain acetobacter, the ethanol produced yields acetic acid and vinegar. “Mom” is an unknown bacterial colony left in vinegar prior to distillation and pasteurization. Apple vinegar is the most popular type of vinegar in the natural health world.
It is believed to contribute to all kinds of benefits, many of which are supported by science.
It involves weight loss, lowered cholesterol levels, lower blood sugar rates and enhanced signs of diabetes.
It is also a traditional folk medicine and has been used for a number of domestic and cooking purposes.
Apple Cider Vinegar Uses and Dosage
Vinegar is used for cooking, baking, and salad dressings and as a preservative. There’s a lot of acid in it, so it’s not recommended to drink vinegar straight. It can cause problems, such as eroding the enamel of your teeth if you get too many. Nevertheless, drinking apple cider vinegar every day can improve your health, but how much can you consume? It is advised that one to two teaspoons (15-30 ml) be taken daily, mixed with water. They’re advising that you don’t take more than one teaspoon at a time, as too much in one sitting will induce vomiting.